Greece was divided into multiple city States as Athens and Sparta. All these cities had different kind of government, dialect (they were speaking a common language that slightly changed depending on the area), army, law, education, and etc.
One difference that stands out is in the field of education. Basic Education in Athens aimed to deliver a balanced human being. The emphasis on education is art, music, and science. Athens wants to make its citizen can be ensured in various fields. Meanwhile, Basic Education in Sparta is determined by political circumstances. The students will be able to be great and loyal to the country.
Most of the time these city-states fought against each other because of their differences. Sparta and Athens had two completely different governments. Spartans were known for their ability to fight and their braveness. The Athens Government led by one person in the head of Government. While on the other hand, the Spartans do lead by two leaders.
Sparta made the military system became the rule in their government, while Athens embraced a system of democracy. In the system of modern governance, many countries in the world imitate system of Government in Athens. However, there are many countries all around the world imitate system derived from Sparta, for example, North Korea.
In the past, Spartan had open-minded because they are aware that regardless of gender and all Spartans have a military obligation to defend Sparta. Therefore, Sparta gives financial and freedom of speech for women in Sparta. While in Athens women was more than a slave, they were not taught reading and writing because it was not expected to be educated and not allowed out of the house.
Although, behind the line of Greece has a country with a very long history and has a great influence on the advancement of philosophy in the world. Everyone knows that there were many philosophers lived in Greece. These philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Thales, Pythagoras, Demokritos, and others.
The father sciences are philosophy. Any philosophy of science originally evolved from thinkers who originated from Greece named Thales and Socrates. Thales was the first person to ask a very basic question about the cosmos, “what is the nature of the world stuff?” then he replied “water”. The question was basic because the question and the answer are to use reason, they do not need religion and other beliefs. The reason is that water is significant for human life. It was the beginning of logic and did not affect religion. They are people who are very honored in the development of Western civilization. In addition, it appears a man named Descartes called the father of modern philosophy of the world. The thinker-thinker is also the people who originated from Greece.
In the time of Ancient Greece, the development of philosophy like mountains and springs. Philosophy (reason) gets a very high place and beat religion. There was a couple of notable philosophy that emerged during this period, including Parmenides and Herakleitos. Parmenides philosophize in the form of aphorisms i.e. short sentences should be interpreted further. In his writing, he teaches two teachings called the path of truth (the way of truth) and the opinion (the way of opinion).
To conclude, behind the complicated State with a fundamental difference between the two policies in one country, Greece can produce philosophers who gave great influence to the world.